Talking about 2.5kHz... What about the popular "skin effect"?

Virtually all zapper companies decrease working frequency from 30kHz to 2.5kHz or less, because of the now
famous "skin effect", giving a magical DEEPER PENETRATION.
You will find on the Internet several interesting articles on this particular effect :

In the latter site, I took the formula used to calculate the thickness of the "skin" .
In this formula:
E: in meters;
Uo: magnetic permeability of vacuum (4pi * 10-7);
Ur: relative magnetic permeability of the conductor (Value is 1 for copper (or the
human body), which are not physically affected by a magnet)
F: frequency in Hz
R: resistivity of the conductor ohm.m (18 * 10-9 ohm.m for copper, 200 =
20000 ohms.m for the blood of the human body)
==>  The effect of skin begins to be disturbing when the radius of the current conductor is over
"e"(calculated in meters)

For a cylindrical copper conductor, we obtain the values below : (1mm= 0.040”)
50 Hz => 9.38 mm;
10 kHz => 0.66 mm;
100 kHz => 0.21 mm;
1 MHz => 0.066 mm

For a human “conductor”, we will have a thickness of the skin effect: e = 1 / V (Uo * pi * Ur * F / R)
30 kHz : 1 / V (3.14 x 4x3.14 x 10-7 x 30000 / 20000) = 411m radius (1348 feet radius)
2500 Hz : 1 / V (3.14 x 4x3.14 x 10-7 x 2500 / 20000) = 1024m radius (3360 feet radius)
Far, far, more than Mr “Biggest_Fat_Man” could ever be!

Consider the equation by the other side… At which frequency the skin effect becomes important in a human body
of 1m radius? Here I simply seeks an order of magnitude with easy numbers.
So, e = 1m = 1 / V 1 / 1; Uo * pi * Ur * F = 20000;
20000 / Uo * pi * Ur = F = 5,071,199,000 Hz
Far, far from the small 30kHz, 2.5kHz or other frequencies used in the zapper.

We consider the skin effect, as long as our reasoning stands, as virtually non-existent in
the use of a zapper.

In my research, the power absorbed by the zapper’s load (me) is about the same from 4kHz to 200kHz and more,
and starts decreasing at about 2.0-2.5kHz and less.
At 400Hz and under, the living skin has time to react and increases its resistance significantly.

The capacitive resistance react in the opposite way of skin effect, and has a decisive impact on the current flowing
through the skin.

The 10Hz - 500,000Hz figures of Dr. Clark are practical, and the choice of 30kHz an excellent practical
compromise for maximum energy transfer.

(Hypothetical) Effect of Frequencies (5/5)
What about other “qualities” of frequency waves?

We still talk here about the BASIC “Hulda Clark’s zapper’s effect”
There is another factor increasing the electrical efficiency of a zapper : Wave form.

If a pure sinusoidal wave is good enough to make the “zapper’s effect”, a square wave would be even
better.  And this is even better when we know that "cheap logic oscillators" as the 555 makes square waves
very easily.
Why square waves are better?
This square energy is made out of higher frequencies (the famous harmonics!!) and will have a higher
transfer rate.
That’s why almost all zappers uses square waves (there is, as usual, some exceptions)

But there is more about square waves!  Something called “duty cycle”.
When a square wave has its “high” portion 50% of the time (meaning its “low”! portion will be 50% also), you
produce odd harmonics only.

If your wave has a duty cycle of 75% High, you will have even more area, meaning more different harmonics,
meaning more current to transfer.
How far can you go?  Well, 100% duty cycle means you are using a continuous voltage, with no more
variations, or 0.0Hz frequency. Goodbye, efficiency!
You should know what you do, and how far is too far (:-)
Resonant frequency :
Resonance was discovered by Galileo Galilei with his investigations of pendulums beginning in 1602.

Resonance phenomena occurs with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical resonance, acoustic
resonance, electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and
resonance of quantum wave functions.

Resonance has many physical applications. Children use it to increase the size of the movement on a swing, by
giving a push at the same point during each swing. Soldiers marching across a bridge in step could cause the
bridge to vibrate violently if the frequency of their steps coincided with its natural frequency.

Resonance occurs widely in nature, and is exploited in many man-made devices.
Many sounds we hear, such as when hard objects of metal, glass, or wood are struck, are caused by brief
resonant vibrations in the object.
Light and other short wavelength electromagnetic radiation is produced by resonance on an atomic scale, such as
electrons in atoms.

Everything in universe has a specific and personal resonant frequency.  You could identify this object and name-it
by its resonant signature.  This is true for musical stings, trucks, bridges, flies or atomic submarines.

The only category of people refusing this fact are medical community, when  talking about resonant frequency of
microbes or parasites.  They have probably very good rea$on$.

The work of Royal Rife was based on Mortal Oscillatory Rates to kill cancer virus, and other plagues of his time.  
H. Clark established her “pathogen frequency list”, noting each parasite resonance frequency.

Everyone of these frequencies where pure sinusoidal and without any offset.  They had to be very precise.

You will find in Internet many interesting articles about this widely used phenomena.
Harmonics (overtones, in music) :

If sinusoidal wave form is a pure frequency, any other wave form is made out of the fundamental frequency, and
many other frequencies having a direct relation with the fundamental : Harmonics.

The harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental
frequency. Harmonic frequencies are equally spaced by the width of the fundamental frequency and can be found
by repeatedly adding that frequency. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 25 Hz, the frequencies of the
harmonics are: 25 Hz, 50 Hz, 75 Hz, 100 Hz, etc.

Harmonics are important to us because square waves are made out of a fundamental frequency and many
harmonics of this fundamental.

For example, a square wave of 10kHz, with a duty cycle of 50/50 (meaning the top of the square is equal to the
bottom of the square), will have a strong 10kHz signal, and 30kHz, 50kHz, 70kHz, 90kHz, 110kHz, with less and
less signal, and so on. On this type of wave form, only odd harmonics are present, even are not

Harmonics are interesting because with a low frequency square wave output, a zapper can reach much higher
frequencies.   In the precedent example, the 10kHz could reach
Bordetella pertussis : 329.85kHz to  332.25kHz on the 330kHz with its 33th harmonic (only 1/33 of the
fundamental signal)
Gaffkya tetragena 344.85kHz to 352.50kHz on the 350kHz with the 35th harmonic (only 1/35 of the
fundamental signal)
Measles antigen 369.50kHz to  373.00kHz on the 370kHz with the 37th harmonic (only 1/37 of the fundamental
And so on…
Duty Cycle :

Duty cycle is interesting for us, frequency wise, because of the contents of supplementary energy, meaning more
harmonics that the 50/50 Duty cycle square wave.

Without  going in Fast Fourier transformation calculations, you can play with this easy, interesting program to find
out which harmonics are included depending on the duty cycle of the square wave form (use the “pencil” to modify
the length of top or bottom waves)

You will find that a 75% duty cycle harmonic will have energy on 1st, 2nd, 3rd, - nothing on 4th- , 5th, 6th, 7th, -
noting on 8th- , ...

If you find an easier, free program to play with wave forms, harmonics and duty cycle, please, let me know for the
benefit of everyone.
Other Frequencies used on zappers

The 4 classical frequencies used in a zapper are :
30kHz, recommended by Dr Clark on her zappers
1.0kHz, recommended by Dr Clark for food zapping - zappicator.
2.5kHz, used on many zappers, as best 2nd frequecy for general zapping
15Hz, popular frequency used first by Don Croft on its Terminator

Other frequencies are used on some zappers (or other devices), because of their good reputation, or good beliefs
of their builders.  Among all these frequencies, we will mention for your documentation :

The all-purpose Rife Frequencies:
20Hz; Stimulating
727.5Hz; Allergy and ...itis (sinusitis, …)
784 & 787Hz; Allergy and ...itis
800Hz; Allergy and ...itis
880Hz; Allergy and ...itis
2 000Hz; Cancer (general)
5 000Hz; Healing Frequency
10 000Hz; Healing Frequency
Note: 2.5kHz, 5.0kHz and 10kHz are in close relation, having a rate of 2:1 or 4:1

Endorphin stimulation
4Hz; Enkephalin; Catecholamin
10Hz; serotonin; norepinephrin
111Hz; Beta endorphin.

15Hz; Inhibit chronic pain, normalize blood pressure; Stimulate Increased Lymph System Circulation ; normalize
emotional mood.

Schumann`s Frequencies
There is many Earth Resonance frequencies, the most popular being 7.83Hz.  - "Leaves you feeling
revitalized like you've spent a day in the country."
Some of their octaves have seen "zapping use" :
21= 15.66Hz (Close to 15Hz)
27= 1 002Hz (Zappicator)
28= 2 004Hz (On the spot of a zapper claiming "Best zapper in the world `cause 2kHz".  It has now converted to
2.5kHz.  Why?  Close too to a "Cure-all" Rife Frequency.
212= 32 071Hz (Close enough to the standard 30kHz)

Very Low Frequencies
These frequencies (0.5Hz up to around 100Hz) are recognized by the brain and produce an interesting BrainWave
Entrainment effect, shifting your state of conscience. 
Sometimes used in zappers, as 15Hz with Don Croft’s Terminator, or as 4Hz in Bob Beck’s zapper, or 111Hz as in
Bob Beck’s Brain Tuner.
The MZ3c device of Maestro-Zapper makes an extensive use of these frequencies to induce a Deep Sleep state.

Technical references

With a zapper using a 555 and only one frequency,
1_  30kHz is my 1st choice if I'm planning to do homeography or plate zapping..
2_  For a general use, 2.5kHz could be a good choice too.
3_  For a zappicator, 1kHz is recommended, but 2.5kHz or even 30kHz will do too.

With a zapper using a 555 and 2 frequencies,
30kHz and 2.5kHz will be a very good choice.

With a zapper using a 555 and 3 frequencies,
30kHz, 2.5kHz and 1.0kHz will be my best choice. 
15Hz instead of 1kHz will be a 2nd choice.

My personal zapper is a MZ3b, with 30kHz, 2.5kHz narrow sweep, and 7.83Hz frequency (supported by a 10kHz

Some zappers have only a specialized frequencyu use, and are made for a specific task

The Super de Luxe (Varizapper) is a frequency zapper with modules for almost everything.  Price is high.

Even with the advent of micro-controllers, the basic 555 zapper has a looong life.   As zappers becomes
increseangly popular, new uses ans discoveries will arise. 

I hope someone will reinvent a syncrometer (tm) really easy to use.
But we maybe already have one without the same name :
Kinesiology : The body never lies.  Only the mental does-it.

Pathogen frequencies chart written by Hullda Clark (TCFAD)
18k - PDF document

Certain Internet sites associate zapper and serious illness.
It is not our role to make such assertions. 

Illness does not interest us.

We leave it to the experts of the unhealthy states.
We are only interested to feel better, which is highly subjective, and to get rid of as much “invaders” who drain our resources, as possible.

These invaders, who live at our expense, we name them under the generic name of “parasites”.

We experience the influence of the zapper effect
on these parasites, on a hypothetical and empirical basis, which have nothing to do with medical or scientific rules.
Legal disclaimer :
We do not prescribe, diagnose, or make any medical claim or advices.

The principles, assumptions or theories exposed here have no medical or scientific value officially recognized.
Please note that Dr Clark’s  books or devices have not been evaluated by Health Canada (Canada) or Food and Drugs Administration (USA), and then, have not received any guarantee on their effectiveness or their safety.
Zappers can only be sold or used as experimental devices for educational research.  They are not intended for use in the cure, treatment, prevention, diagnostic of any disease.

If illness is an issue, please consult a licensed health professional before attempting any self health program.

By using this information without the approval of a licensed health professional, you are prescribing for yourself, as permitted by law, and you take full responsibility for the results.
These results may vary depending on individuals
Applied Electronic to Well-Being

The first page talks about H.
Clark’s original zapper and its
30kHz frequency, and why it is so
important for a zapper to have at
least this frequency.

The second page talks about
the zapper really working with
frequencies, why each “expert”
has its own pet frequency, and
why it is so difficult to choose
among all frequencies from Rife,
Clark, Beck and many others.
Frequencies and parasites

The third page talks about
zapping frequencies “whispering”
to the brain
15Hz VLF 
VLF What they are 
VLF-How it works

The fourth page is about an
actual trend : the multiplication
of proposed frequencies, and also
about the sweep frequency and
what it's so special with it
Narrow Sweep
Influenza A&B
Candida albicans
Fasciolopsis buskii
Wide FV Sweep

The fifth page is a technical
reference for all other pages.
Qualities of a frequency
Other frequencies used in a
Resonant frequency
Duty cycle
Skin effect